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2020深圳成人高考专升本《英语》同义词辨析资料

深圳自考网分享关于2020深圳成人高考专升本《英语》同义词辨析资料提供大家进行学习,同时也希望能对各位考生有所帮助!


【篇一】


forbid ban prohibit


都含“禁止”的意思。


forbid


系常用词,指“命令某人不做某事”, 如:


The doctor forbids him to smoke.


医生禁止他吸烟。


ban


语气较重,指机关“正式禁止”,含“严厉谴责”之意,只能用事物作其宾语,如:


Ban atomic and nuclear weapons!


禁止原子武器和核武器!


prohibit


指“通过法律或政府法令禁止”,如:


The soldiers were prohibited from leaving camp after dark.


permit allow let


都含“准许”的意思。


permit 和allow 在许多情况下可以通用,但它较allow 正式,含有“积极地、从正面地允许”的意义,如:


They don't permit you to smoke.


他们不允许你抽烟。


allow 指“并不反对”或“不加阻止”,偏重“默许”或“听任”,含义较消极, 如:


Each passenger is allowed twenty -five kilogrammes of luggage.


每位旅客允许携带二十五公斤的行李。


let 是三个词中最不正式的,较口语化,而语意最弱,指“给予可能或同意”,有时含“难以阻止或限制”之意,如:


Let him wait.


让他等一等。


Let ,allow,permit,grant这组动词都有“允许”或“让”的意思。


let 是个普通词,常要求复合宾语,在不定式作宾语补足语时,总省去不定式符号to,有时在一定的上下文中可省去宾语补足语:let,allow这两个动词都有“让”或“允许”的意思,仔细研究后可以看到许多情况下,这两个词并不能通用。let 所表示的“允许”含有“不阻止”(notto prevent)的意思,如:


Let's go into the garage and have a look at it.


咱们到汽车修配厂去看看吧。


She said her future husband would not let her make another film.


她说她的未婚夫不会让她再拍电影了。(此句用would not let,意思是“阻止)


When the bull got close to him,he clumsily stepped aside to let it pass.


当公牛接近了他时,他笨拙地向一旁一闪,把公牛让了过去。


Then he sits and barks until someone lets him out.


然后它坐着吠叫,直到有人把它放出去为止。


The third baseman let the ball roll between his feet.


第三名垒手让球从他的两只脚之间滚了过去。


而allow所表示的“允许”含有“容忍”(forbearance of prohibition)的意思。


Please allow me to introduce Mr Brown to you.


请允许我把布朗先生向你介绍一下。


Now we are not allowed to touch it.


现在是不让我们碰一碰它的。


注:let somebody do something(让某人做某事)作宾语补足语的不定式省去to,而allow some body to do something(让某人做某事)作宾语补足语的不定式带to.allow与permit也可以用于allow(permit)somebody to do something的句子结构,但也可以要求简单宾语或表示行为的名词作宾语。这三个词都能表示“没能阻止”或“不去阻止”,但是let并不包含allow和permit所共有的这层含义:有能力、有不去禁止或不去防止某事,有时表示由于笨拙疏忽而放过去,如:


The teacher allows too much noise in the classroom


那位老师听任教室内有过分的嘈杂声。


He should have known that the police would never allow this sort of thing.


他应该知道,警察是不会允许这种事情的。


The dogs have greater freedom too,for they are allowed to wander outside their enclosure.


那些狗也有了较大的自由,因为允许它们在栅栏外面到处跑跑。


而permit又不包含allow的这样一层含义:克制着自己不去禁止,而allow却不包含permit的这样的含义:同意或者默许,如:


We do not allow (or permit) gambling.


我们不允许赌博;


grant 所表示的“允许”包含这样的意思:上级就下级的要求,把自认为是一种恩惠或权利给予别人,如:


He requested that the premier grant him an internview.


他要求那位总理接见他一次。


Permission was granted and a policeman accompanied him to a call-box.


获得了许可后,一名警察陪他来到公用电话亭。


composed of men of the same nationality or who spoke a common language.


法令指出连队应当尽可能地由同一民族的人或操同一语言的人组成。


【篇二】


lift raise elevate


都含“举起”的意思。


lift 指“用体力或机械力把某物从地面举到一定的高度”,如:


She can lift a pail of water from the ground.


她能把一桶水提起来。


raise 与Lift 可换用,但着重“垂直高举”或“将物件由较低处移至较高处的适宜位置,以发挥应有的作用”,如:


raise a flag.


升旗。


elevate 指“提高(嗓子、思想等)”,如:


Good reading elevates the mind.


阅读好书可使思想高尚。


lift raise rear elevate hoist


这组动词的一般含义是“提起”,“举起”。


lift 强调“提升很重的或者抬起比较重的东西”,当用于比喻时,可以指雄伟高大的建筑物或大山的“高耸入云”。


The dish now had to be lifted vertically because one edge was resting against the side of the canal.


现在必须垂直着提升馅饼盘,因为盘的一边靠在运河的侧面上。


raise 在用于“提升”的意义时,可包含费力也可能不包含费力,但总带有“垂直”提升的意思;在用于比喻时,可以表示喂羊家畜、家禽,照料农作物的生长,募集资金,抬募军队,养育儿童等


…there was tremendous excitement on board when a chest was raised from the bottom……


当从海底提上来一只箱子时,船上出现了极为兴奋的场面。


Our vicar is always raising money for one cause or another.


我们的牧师老是在为这桩或那桩事募款。


rear和raise在文学语言中常互换使用。在表示养育儿童时,rear 为美国南方各州惯用词。


She bore three children and reared (or reaised) two of them.


她生过三个孩子,养大了两个。


elevate 一般具有lift和raise的含义,但elevate 常用于抽象概念的提高,如“提高文学鉴赏力”,“提高情操”等。


Good reading elerates the mind.


读好书可以提高情操。


hoist 尤指“以机械提升重物”。


The cargo was soon hoisted into the ship.


贷物很快就被吊进船舱。


【篇三】


change alter vary modify


这组动词的一般含义是“改变”或“变化”。


change 是通用词,它有两层基本含义:“变”和“换”。“变”可以指和原来的样子或性质稍有不同,也可以指有本质的差异。


At first,she decided to go to the police,but fearing that she would never see Rastus ag


ain-the letter had made that quite clear-she changed her mind.


起初,她决定去警察局,但是她由于担心再也见不到拉斯特斯了-那封信说得相当清楚-她改变了主意。


He then changed into overalls and spent the next eight hours as a dustman.


然后他换上工装裤,作为清洁工人度过接下去的八小时。


alter 所表示的“改变”只是细节的,或外表的变化,并不表示本质的改变。如:把一件衣服改小一些或只把衣袖稍放肥一些,但衣服的式样仍然不变,这时用alter便很确当


He may gently reprimand an official or even suggest to parliament that a law be alltered.


他可以温和地指责一个官员,或者甚至建议议会修改法律条款。


vary 一般表示转换、变易、增生所致的“变化”或“不同”


The action he takes varies according to the nature of the complaint.


他所采取的行动,根据怨言的性质,而有所不同。


modify 主要用来表示有局限性的“改变”,当用于事物时,它所表示的“改变”,在程度上要大于alter,在用于人的态度时,它仅仅表示略加修饰,并不含有很大的变化。


The industrial revolution modified the whole structure of English society.


工业革命变革了英国的整个社会结构。


change alter vary


都含“改变”的意思。


change 指“使改变得与原物完全不同”或“使发生以新代旧的变化”,如:


The appearance of the town is quite changed.


这个城镇的外观变化颇大。


alter 指“局部的、外表的变化, 但特点不变”, 如:


This coat should be altered.


这件外套应该改改。


vary 指“不规则或连续地改变”,如:


Customs vary with the times.


习俗随时代而异。


【篇四】


remain stay


都指“继续停留”或“继续保持某种状态、关系或行动。”


remain 常可与stay 互换,但它强调“继续停留于一处或保持原状态、情况性质而不改变”,如:


This place remains cool all summer.


这个地方整个夏天都凉爽。


stay强调“某人物继续留在原地而不离开”,如:


He stayed to see the end of the game.


他一直呆到比赛结束。


ability capacity faculty talent skill competence aptitude


These nouns denote the qualities in a person that permit or facilitate achievement or accomplishment.


这些名词都表示某人具有取得进步或成功的素质。


Ability is the power,mental or physical,to do something:


Ability 是指智力或体力上具有做某事的能力:


“To make a fortune some assistance from fate is essential. Ability alone is insufficient” (Ihara Saikaku)。


“要致富,光靠能力是不够的,还得看机遇”(伊哈拉。塞科古)。


Capacity refers to an innate potential for growth,development,or accomplishment:


Capacity 指天赋的,如生长、发展或成功的潜力:


“Not by age but by capacity is wisdom acquired” (Plautus)。


“智慧的获得是依靠才能而不是年龄”(普洛提斯)。


Faculty denotes an inherent power or ability:


Faculty 指内在的力量或能力:


An unerring faculty for detecting hypocrisy is one of her most useful attributes.


能无误地看出伪善的能力是她身上最有用的特征之一。


Talent emphasizes inborn ability,especially in the arts:


Talent 强调天生的才能,尤其是在艺术方面:


“There is no substitute for talent. Industry and all the virtues are of no avail” (Aldous Huxley)。


“勤奋及其他的品质都不能弥补天分的不足”(阿尔多斯。赫胥黎)。


Skill stresses ability that is acquired or developed through experience:


Skill 强调由经验而获得或发展的能力:


“The intellect,character and skill possessed by any man are the product of certain ori


ginal tendencies and the training which they have received” (Edward L. Thorndike)。


“任何人的知识、性格和能力都是由起初的兴趣加上后来接受的训练而得到的。”(爱德华L.桑戴克)。


Competence suggests the ability to do something satisfactorily but not necessarily out


standingly well:


Competence 指能做到使人满意但并不一定特别出众的能力:


The concerto was performed by a violinist of unquestioned competence but limited im


agination.


小提琴家所演奏的协奏曲毫无疑问是出色的,但是缺乏想像力。


Aptitude implies inherent capacity for learning,understanding,or performing:


Aptitude 暗指内在的学习、理解和表演的才能:


Even as a child he showed an unusual aptitude for mathematics.


甚至孩童时他就显露出非同一般的数学才能。


【篇五】


complete perfect


虽然都有“完全的”含义,但并非同义词,在许多情况下它们只是词义相近而已。


complete 的含义是“完整无缺的”、“圆满的”


He is a complete stranger to me.


我一点也不认识他。(可以和perfect 换用)


I felt sure I would never be able to close the case again.


我肯定没有办法再把箱子关上了。


shut与close 的含义差别在于,shut仅表示“关闭”之状态,不包含“不让进入”或“不接纳”的意思。


As soon as he opens the gate from the outside,he comes into the garden and waits until the gate shuts.


它一旦从外面把门打开,便走进园子里等着关门。


在某些习语中,只有shut而不用close.


Shut up!


住口!


He found every road to the accomplishment of his desire shut against him.


他发现通向实现自己愿望的所有道路都被堵死了。


He shut his eyes to the severs reality.


对于这严峻的现实,他是闭着眼睛不肯看的。


【篇六】


accompany attend escort convoy


意思都含“与人结伴同行”或“伴随某物”。


accompany 指“与人结伴,做伴”,常含有彼此之间关系平等之意,如:


He -nied her to the theater.


他陪她去剧院。


attend 意为“随侍”、“随从” 等解,如:


Some students attended Prof. Jones on a field trip.


一些学生随琼斯教授去野外郊游。


escort 和convoy意为“以警卫等身份陪伴”,如:


This merchant ship was convoyed by a destroyer.


这艘商船由一驱逐舰护航。


escort 还指礼节上的“尊重或献殷勤”,如:


He escorted a lady to a party.


他陪一位女士赴宴。


accurate correct exact


均含“正确的”意思。


accurate 表示“准确的”,“精确的”,指“通过努力,使事情达到正确”,如:


She gave an accurate account of the accident.


她对事故做了准确的描述。


correct为一般用语,指“正确的”,如:


He gave correct answers to the questions.


他对这些问题提出了正确的答案。


exact 表示“确切的”,“精确无误的”,指“与事实完全相符”,如:


His answer is quite exact.


他的回答完全正确


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